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The TOEFL Test Structure

The TOEFL Test Structure

The TOEFL Test Structure

a.       Basic Sentences Stucture

There was no significant difference between the structure of English sentences with Indonesian, where a sentence is built upon  four main components :

Subject (S) + Verb (V) + Complement (C) + Modifier (M)

1.       SUBJECT

  • is the agent of sentence in the active voice
  • is thing/person that performs or responsible for the action of a sentence
  • normally precedes the verb

Example :

  1. I explain how to study English
  2. She listens to my explanation
  3. They didn’t understand that language

2.  VERB

Verb is the action of a sentence

Example :

  1. I am learning English (am = auxilary, learning = main verb)
  2. My brother is very clever
  3. She has gone home (has = auxilary, gone = main verb)
  4. I have been waiting here (have been = auxilary, waiting = main verb

3. COMPLEMENT

Example :

  • Sarijon bought a cake yesterday

What did Sarijon buy yesterday?  –> a cake.

  • He saw Tony at the movie

Whom did he see at the movie? –> Tony

  • I explain pharmacology to my students

What do I explain to my students? –> pharmacology

4. MODIFIER

Example :

  • John bought a book at a book fair

Where did John buy a book? –> at a book fair

  • She is driving very fast

How is she driving? –> very fast

  • I posted my application yesterday

When do I post my application? –> yesterday

 

b.      Parallel Structure

Parallelism meaning of words used in a network or cluster should have the same grammatical form. When we use words or phrases that are connected by the conjunction in a network, the form should be the same as grammar.

Example :

* Terry likes swimming and to dive. (False – not parallel)

* Terry likes swimming and diving. (True – parallel)

* Terry likes to swim and (to) dive. (True – parallel)

* I’m taking history, math, and chemical. (False – Chemical isn’t a noun)

* I’m taking history, math, and chemistry

 

c.       Comparative Adjectives

When talking about the two objects, we can compare and see the differences as well similarities between the two objects. Maybe it has the same thing on one side and the difference on the other side. To compare the difference between the two objects we use comparative adjectives. Comparison is only using comparative adjectives to compare between two objects only. There are two ways to create a comparative adjectives:

1. Adding the suffix-er (short adjectives)

2. Adding more prefix (long adjectives)

 

Addition of a suffix rule for short adjectives:

– Generally only added adjective-er, for example: older, smaller, richer, etc.

– If the ending-e, just add r, for example: later, nicer, etc..

– If the ending in a consonant-vowel-consonant, the final consonant plus, then plus-er, for example: bigger, hotter, etc.

– If the ending-y, then y changed to i then added er, for example: happier, Earlier, busier, heavier, etc.

For long adjectives, the rule only adds more words only on adjectives, for example: expensive to be more expensive, more beautiful to be beautiful, and so on. Some adjectives have irregular shapes, such as good – better, well (healthy) – better, bad – worse, far – farther / further, etc.

Adjectives with two syllables can use-er or more: quiet – quieter / more quiet, clever – cleverer / more clever, narrow – narrower / more narrow, simple – Simpler / more simple. Comparative adjectives are not only used to compare two different objects, but can also be used to compare the same object that points to itself, and the object is not to say, as one example sentence above: I want to have a more powerful computer.

1.       Adjectives with one syllable

To make the comparative form of an adjective with one syllable, we add-er to the adjective, for example:

  • • slow – slower
  • • fast – faster
  • • tall – taller
  • • short – shorter

To make a comparison of an adjective with one syllable and ends with the letter-e, we simply add-r. example:

  • • nice – nicer
  • • large – larger

If adjectives with one syllable ending with vowels and consonants, then we double the consonant. example:

  • • – big – bigger
  • • hot – hotter

2.       Adjectives with two syllables

If the adjective has two or more syllables, we add the adjective moresebelum. example:

  • • This book is more expensive than that book.
  • • This picture is more beautiful.

However, there are many exceptions to the rule of one / two syllables it. Some words with 2 syllables have properties similar to words that have 1 syllable. example:

  • • This is Easier – True
  • • This is more easy – not really
  • • This is Simpler – True
  • • This is more simple – False

And some adjectives can use both comparative form. example:

– Clever – cleverer – more clever: These are all correct

– Quiet – quieter – more quiet: These are all correct.

No exceptions can be learned through the rules, the best way to learn is to learn it one by one.

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